Getting Started With C++ Programming

C++ is a versatile programming language used across a range of domains – from browsers and games to self-driving cars – making it essential to the creation of emerging technology like self-driving cars. This Path will deepen your knowledge of this popular programming language to prepare you for a professional career in software engineering.

Experience with programming is invaluable. Familiarizing yourself with essential concepts like statements, “for” loops and “while” loops will enable you to more quickly navigate this language.

Basic Concepts

C++ is an invaluable computer programming language, used for everything from games and operating systems to science and machine learning applications that require high levels of abstraction to work with memory. In this course, we will cover its fundamental concepts.

Starting off by learning variables and data types, then moving onto understanding various data operations that can be performed–both mathematical and logical in nature. Next up will be learning functions and loops before finally exploring conditional statements that allow us to control when blocks of code should run or not.

This course is tailored for software programmers seeking an introduction to C++ programming language. Experience in programming can help you better grasp its syntax; additionally, a compiler is necessary in order to compile and run code. Our courses feature practical lessons with examples in each chapter so you can put what you have learned into action right away.


Variables are used in computer programs to store numbers or values. An assignment statement allows you to assign new values for them – for instance if you wanted to change a variable from 10 to 12, write this line of code into your program:

Bjarne Stroustrup created C++ at Bell Labs in 1980 as an amalgamation of several existing programming languages, hoping to combine the speed and high-level functionality of BCPL, Simula and Dennis Ritchie’s C into one universal programming language.

C++ is a compiled language, meaning it is converted directly to machine code and run directly on hardware for efficient results with high performance. This ensures fast results and delivers quick performance gains.

C++ may initially seem daunting to newcomers due to its complex syntax and memory management; however, with practice and understanding of its fundamental principles it becomes easier. C++ is widely used for developing operating systems, web browsers, GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces), and games; additionally it supports both procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms.


C++ programming boasts an expansive set of functions and the capability to work closely with hardware, providing programmers with greater control over memory management and leading to enhanced performance and robust software development. Furthermore, its compatibility with various programming paradigms makes C++ an effective way for programmers who wish to broaden their thinking or find novel approaches to solving problems.

C++ functions are created to perform specific tasks and can be executed at any point in the code. They’re defined using parentheses and an action word; for example, “cout” could be used to output text onto a screen.

To utilize any function, you must include its respective header file in your program. As the code below demonstrates, iostream> is a header file containing definitions for cin, cout and other functions that help users take input from users and display output. Adding namespace std; tells the compiler to utilize objects and variables available through standard libraries.


Arrays are versatile data structures with many applications. They store lists of elements efficiently due to being stored contiguously in memory, and allow easy indexing using variables, making them more flexible than other data structures.

Furthermore, arrays can store any primitive data type or even more complex structures such as objects. Furthermore, they can store data from a matrix or list of numbers; traversal through loops and functions is easy.

Arrays are an essential concept in computer programming, and it is crucial that you gain an understanding of their structure and operations before writing your own programs. Beginners may find it easiest to model this concept using physical objects like cubes or dice; more advanced programmers should research various coding softwares available online in order to study how arrays operate. Once comfortable with arrays, advanced concepts should be explored such as working with loops and functions.


Integers are whole numbers that do not contain fractional parts. These numbers include positive integers, negative integers and zero. When programming computers, integers are one of the easiest data types; taking up less storage space and being processed faster than their floating point counterparts.

Addition and subtraction rules also exist when dealing with integers. When adding two integers together, it is crucial that their signs match or the result may be negative; when subtracting integers it helps to use a number line to visualize this process.

Integers are used every day in our lives to represent distance from a starting point, including elevation above sea level, temperature above or below freezing, debit/credit transactions on bank statements and the number of floors above or below ground level in elevators – among many other uses. They’re also integral parts of time/distance calculations when driving cars or walking between locations – an ability to work with integers is therefore crucial for algebra success.


Pointers are variables that store addresses of memory locations where data resides, with any type of data type capable of being stored therein and any address type being accepted as valid data type for a pointer address.

Pointers can refer to any kind of data, making them highly beneficial in computer programs. Pointers allow easy access to array elements and objects without needing indexes for indexing purposes.

When declaring a pointer, its type compound specifier usually contains an asterisk (*). However, the dereference operator seen earlier should not be confused with this character used to declare pointers.

Pointers can be assigned to other pointers to point to the same memory location. When assigning, an expression like x=y will make one pointer point to that same location; this can help when managing memory for multiple points in an array. Pointers also help when calling functions through call-by-value functions, as this provides more efficient methods when using call-by-value functions with many arguments.


Strings are sequences of characters composed of numbers, letters and symbols that form words or phrases read aloud by humans. When programming strings are often stored in variables which can then be altered to display or print the string; additionally different functions exist that operate on strings such as strcat to concatenate strings together and strlen to determine its length; strcmp compares two strings.

C++ strings are represented as objects belonging to the string> class, making their creation and usage straightforward. Furthermore, this object type can easily be converted to other values such as integers.

Computer programs use strings in many different ways. For instance, strings may be used to communicate information to their user from a program and store non-human readable data that cannot be easily read by humans; such as using it to display a message like “file upload complete”.


C++ offers object-oriented programming techniques that enable you to utilize objects to develop more structured programs, which is useful in creating reusable and flexible code that makes changes easier than before.

Classes form the backbone of object-oriented programming in C++. They combine data and functions into one object known as a class; its constructor acts as its member.

A class can contain both public and private members; public members can be accessed by any object of the same class while private ones can only be accessed by its host object or friend functions.

C++ objects serve many functions, including iteration (through loops) and selection. Furthermore, objects can be passed as arguments to functions for faster execution of programs: passing an object like obj[5] as arguments will create an array of values suitable for printing by calling printValue() five times.

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